CROP AND WEATHER REPORT
For the Monthly Report Ending June 15, 2015

GENERAL WEATHER FOR THIS AREA: The overall weather continues to be conducive for crop development in Southwestern Minnesota. As you may recall from the previous Crop & Weather Report, temperatures were quite erratic from mid-April through mid-May. That trend continued into the last half of May, but has stabilized into the first half of June. The daytime high temperatures since May 15th have ranged from 43 to 95 degrees and nighttime lows have ranged from 34 to 63 degrees, according to the Southwest Research and Outreach Center (SWROC) in Lamberton, MN. We did have some "frost effects" from the 34 degrees low on May 19th. Fortunately, the effects were mostly cosmetic, with just some corn leaves turning a pale green, but no significant impacts on the soybean plants. We are also seeing soil temperatures at the 2 to 4 inch level range from the upper 50s to the upper 70s within the past month, but these temps are starting to settle in at the mid-70s.
Rainfall totals over the last month have ranged anywhere from 3.35 to 5.58 inches from May 13th through June 13th. Most of this rainfall arrived around May 29th - June 7th. We did receive some nice rain on June 15th, which will be report in the totals for next month's Crop and Weather Report. There were 2-4 inches of rain predicted for June 11th, but fortunately we only received about a half an inch, which allowed us to avoid any significant drowned out areas in the fields. As of May 1st, the available soil water in the 5 foot soil profile was below normal, but has since increased to above average according to the SWROC. With this increase in moisture over the past month, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has removed Southwestern Minnesota from the drought monitor (see Figure 1). With more rain in the forecast, we should continue to see soil moisture conditions be favorable.
Forecasts indicate average to above average temperatures and above average moisture through the end of June into early July. This should help both the corn and soybeans develop in the coming month.
Figure 1 - NOAA Drought Monitor as of June 9, 2015.

SOYBEANS: As noted in the May Crop and Weather Report, soybean planting for Fairland's clients was finished around the middle of May. In general, growing conditions have been ideal since planting. There have not been any excessive rainfalls at this point that would cause any concern about stand or plant health. The soybeans have emerged nicely and are developing into the second trifoliate leaf stage. The majority of the fields have a pre-emerge herbicide applied to help control the first flush of weeds. These pre-emerge herbicides have done a nice job of controlling the weeds. But with the moisture and the average to above average temperatures in the forecast, we will be scouting for the next flush of weeds which will be developing in the coming weeks. To help prevent resistance and to fight off the already resistant weed varieties, farmers are introducing different chemicals into their herbicide programs. By doing this, they are exposing the weed plant to different modes of action for eliminating the plant. These assorted modes of action attack the various parts of the plant. The idea behind this is if we change up our herbicide programs the weeds will not have the ability to develop resistance to a specific herbicide.

In Minnesota, 97 percent of the soybean acres are planted and 88 percent of the these acres have emerged, which has put it 13 days ahead of last year and 11 days ahead of the 5 year average. The first condition report for the year shows that in Minnesota, 25 percent of the soybeans are rated fair, 67 percent good, and 6 percent excellent. Nationally, 79% of the intended acres are planted and of these, 69% of the soybeans are rated good to excellent according to the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Figure 2 - A farmer is filling tanks on a sprayer so he can apply a pre-emerge herbicide on a soybean field.

CORN: With the excellent start to the growing season, the corn has been developing nicely. Most of the corn was planted into perfect soil conditions, followed by some much needed rain. This allowed the corn to emerge evenly across the majority of the fields. There are a few areas where the plant populations were reduced do to sandy or low organic soils. But even with these reduced populations, the counts are still sufficient to reach 95%-100% of yield potential. The corn in our area has currently developed to about the V4 to V5, stage which indicates the number of collars or leaves that the plant has. This will put the plant at roughly 8-12 inches tall. The development stages vary based on the number of Growing Degree Units (GDU) and the number of days the seed has been in the ground since planting. Most corn fields had a pre-emerge herbicide applied right after planting. These herbicides have done an excellent job with weed control over the past month. The majority of Fairland's tenants have been focusing on the second round of spraying and also side-dressing nitrogen (Figure 3).

As of June 7th, most of the corn crop in Minnesota has emerged. The condition of the corn in Minnesota is rated at 73 percent good to excellent, which is up 3 percent from the previous week. Nationally, the corn crop is rated 74 percent good to excellent, unchanged from the previous week and a point below the conditions at this point last year (USDA).

Figure 3 - A tenant side-dressing nitrogen in a corn field.

REMARKS: The USDA Monthly Supply & Demand Report was released on Wednesday, June 10th. The USDA kept the estimated national corn and soybean production the same at 13.63 billion bushels (166.8 bushels per acre) and 3.85 billion bushels (46 bushels per acre), respectively. USDA estimates that ending US stocks (inventory) for the 2014-2015 corn crop is 1.876 billion bushels (which was increased 25 million bushels from the estimate last month). The 2015-2016 ending inventory is expected to drop to 1.771 billion bushels. This is still more corn supply than the 1.232 bushels from the 2013-2014 crop, hence the reason that we continue to see corn prices decrease.

The USDA lowered the 2014-2015 soybean ending stocks by 20 million bushels to 330 million bushels. For the 2015-2016 soybean crop the USDA estimates the national ending inventory at 475 million bushels. For comparison, the ending stocks for the 2013-2014 soybean crops were 92 million bushels. Again, this is the main reason for the downward pressure on soybean prices.

It continues to be a busy time of the year. We have been scouting for weed control and finalizing spraying plans for the corn and soybeans, processing crop expenses, working with tenants to move grain from the bins to the elevator, selling grain, organizing and implementing tile installation and a few other improvement projects, certifying acres with the Farm Service Agency and processing acreage reports for crop insurance, conducting projections for clients, and updating clients on their specific farming operations and financial projections.




Figure 4 - A tile plow is installing tile in late May.

 

GROWING-DEGREE DAYS

 

MAY 1, 2015 TO DATE INDICATED

TOTAL GROWING DEGREE DAYS

DEPARTURE, FROM NORMAL

LOCATION      
Lamberton

June 15, 2015

579

-18

Worthington

June 15, 2015

N/A

N/A

 

Corn Growing Degree Days are calculated by subtracting a 50 degree base temperature from the average of the maximum and minimum temperature for the day. The daily maximum is limited to 86 degrees and the minimum is 50 degrees.

 

Grain Markets (June 15, 2015)

 

New Vision,
Windom

Magnolia

Poet Biorefining,
Bingham Lake

MnSP,
Brewster

Cash        
Corn

         3.24

       3.24

              3.26

      N/A

Soybeans

         9.15

       9.11

              N/A

      9.38

October        
Corn

         3.21

       3.17

              3.33

      N/A

Soybeans

         8.41

       8.39

              N/A

      8.64



 

 

Rainfall (inches)
 

COUNTY

CITY

 May 13-June 13, 2015

MARCH 15 to DATE-2015

MARCH 15 to DATE-2014

Cottonwood Jeffers                 5.58                   9.28                   9.87
Cottonwood Windom                 4.83                   8.74                   8.41
Jackson Heron Lake

                3.88

                  7.95                   8.13
Jackson Jackson

                4.63

                  8.48                   8.93
Martin Trimont                 4.60                   8.88                   9.94
Murray Fulda                 3.35                   8.01

                  9.83

Murray Slayton                 4.65                   8.61                   9.88
Nobles Round Lake

                4.72

                  8.56

                10.88
Nobles Rushmore                 5.53

                  8.80

                12.65

Redwood Redwood Falls                 4.14                   7.58                 11.01
Rock Magnolia                 5.50                 10.04                 11.19

Jeremy B. Hooge
Farm Management Advisor













E-mail us at: fairland@fairlandmanagement.com